Self-care behaviors, including healthy eating, being active, monitoring, taking medication, problem-solving, reducing risk, and healthy coping, are the core components of our intervention. The second stage involved screening and assessment process by evaluating previous medical histories, measurement of HbA1c values, blood pressure, and visual acuity, and completion of three validated questionnaires regarding cognitive function (modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS)) , activity of daily living (Instrumental Activity of Daily Living (IADL)) , and hearing problem status (validated Single Global Screening Question) . The purpose of the telephone calls was to foster continued performance accomplishment via positive verbal persuasion. Thus, the novelty here is the application of theory into the clinical practice. We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible. Nurses are uniquely positioned to inspire positive changes and transform healthcare delivery by serving as the bridge between theory and practice . Data analysis was carried out in two steps. This instrument has previously been validated for use in Iranian population () . A vast majority of participants had middle socioeconomic status; only 4.9% reported having difficulties meeting basic needs. In recent years, great emphasis has been placed on the role of nonpharmacological self-management in the care of patients with diabetes. In contrast, the average age of the T2DM population in developed countries is over 65 years . We recognize that there might be room for further improvement of clinical outcomes by increasing contact time and frequency. Analysis of variance with repeated measure on time revealed a significant group-by-time interaction for HbA1c levels (). A significant interaction effect of time and group exists with respect to the body weight of participants (). 1 Despite the large numbers of older adults with diabetes, how to care for this group remains unclear because of the limited clinical trial data involving older adults 2–4 and the heterogeneity, both … In line with the above findings, our intervention found to be effective in decreasing glycated hemoglobin levels over 24 weeks, comparable to those of drug trials. A. Malmgren, W. B. Carter, and D. L. Patrick, “Screening for depression in well older adults: evaluation of a short form of the CES-D,”, S. K. Malakouti, N. A. Pachana, B. Naji, S. Kahani, and M. Saeedkhani, “Reliability, validity and factor structure of the CES-D in Iranian elderly,”, D. M. Rabi, A. L. Edwards, D. A. Our findings support the implementation of a program that emphasizes collaborative learning, although the optimum interval and contact time require further evaluation. Description of Data Collection Strategy Patients with Type 2 Diabetes In this quantitative approach, self-administered survey questionnaires will be … Out of the three, type 2 DM is the commonest type that accounts for approximately 90% of all the cases of diabetes in adults. Glucose regulation in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. A large body of literature has developed on diabetes education and its efficacy, including several important quantitative reviews showing positive effects of diabetes education. The DSMQ is a 16-item self-administered questionnaire, with the higher scores indicating a more effective self-care . NycoCard HbA1c analyzer (made in the US) was used for quantitative determination of HbA1c value. In four lean controls, sensitivity to insulin was tested also during a hyperglycemic clamp set at 10.3 +/- 0.6 mmol l-1. A multidisciplinary team including endocrinologists, nutritionists, nurses, and pharmacists, with the actual intervention to be carried out by a nurse, designed the intervention program. Efficacy expectation (self-efficacy) was measured using the Diabetes Management Self-Efficacy Scale (DMSES) . In a systematic review that included 118 unique interventions, data analysis revealed an average reduction in A1C of 0.57 for persons with type 2 diabetes who received diabetes self-management education (DSME) compared to those who did not; this statistically significant reduction demonstrated that engagement in DSME results in substantial and significant improvements in glycemic control in … The total score ranged from 0 to 100 points, with the higher scores indicating more available social support. Hyperglycemia reduced the Kgluc at all insulin levels. 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