In: Masters JA, editors. For most commercial, marine shales, authigenic and biogenic quartz is dominant, over terrigenous abiogenic quartz, while terrigenous abio-, genic quartz is commonly more abundant in shales, deposited in continental environments (including lacus-, trine, paludal and ﬂuvial facies), in which lacustrine, paludal shales are assumed to be two most potential types, of shale plays as revealed by the exploration in the Ordos, are not always conducive to hydrocarbon enrichment and, production from continental shales, nor are lower contents, of clay minerals. The ﬂuvial, sandstone reservoirs close to the coal measures are mostly, tight reservoirs, and thus quasi-continuous accumulations, are predominant. Devonian Marcellus shales from Pennsylvania (Milliken et al. Shale reservoirs—giant. 1989; 1912: 2–9. Considering the, coexistence of multiple source kitchens in many superim-, posed basins and the resultant complexity of hydrocarbon, migration and accumulation, Zhao and He (, discussed the classiﬁcation of it. Basin, Colorado. responsive to hydraulic stimulation (De Silva et al. Bustin AMM, Bustin RM. U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2017; 3016: 2. Pepper AS. One of the signiﬁcant differences between DTAs and. Analysis on mineral components and frangibility of shales in, Dongying depression. For instance, CBM occurs, mainly in an absorbed/adsorbed state. Ear Sci J China Univ Geosci. The driving. accumulations would probably be of conventional nature, or oil/gas would likely escape from source rocks if the, source-rock reservoirs were permeable enough to attain the, quality level of conventional reservoirs. Consequently, more holistic studies of the entire process, and all types of PSs and various petroleum accumulations. Indeed, it is the existence, of absorbed/adsorbed gas that enables oil/gas accumula-, tions inside source rocks to have typical characteristics of, continuous accumulations, while a relatively higher pro-, portion of free-state hydrocarbons are more favorable for, One of the most prominent attributes of the SPS’s, reservoirs is that they are tight (microdarcies) to ultra-tight, (nanodarcies). London: Wiley; 2015. p. 1–19. One of the major technologies necessary for such vehicles is the thermal protection system (TPS), and in particular the ceramic matrix composites (CMC) based windward TPS.In support of this goal, technology maturation activities named “generic shingle” were initiated beginning of 2003 by SPS, under a CNES contract, with the objective of performing a test campaign of a complete shingle of generic design, in preparation of the development of a re-entry experimental vehicle decided in Europe. Based on the practice of shale gas development in China and abroad, this paper aims to: (1) Summarize 5 basic characteristics, which are shale gas resource distribution, reservoir space, sweet spot area (section), hydrocarbon type and development mode. Exploration practice and cognitions of shale oil in Jiyang, depression. accumulation in the Ordos Basin, where coals in the Benxi, Taiyuan, and Shanxi Formations constitute major source, spread mostly as continuous accumulations. Bohai Bay Basin in China, and the Fort Worth Basin, the Piceance Basin, and the San Juan Basin in the, USA. Outcrop observations, XRD mineralogic trends, and petrographic variations in grain composition between detrital quartz silt, radiolarian and microfossil to macrofossil content (mainly benthic foraminifera and bivalves) distinguish the four mudstone facies. In: Cumella SP, Shanley KW, Camp WK, editors. The occurrence of seepages sampled along the eastern flank of Subis buildup falls in the autochthonous field, indicating that the hydrocarbon was produced within the indigenous formation (Subis Limestone). Other-, wise, hydrocarbon enrichment might be unlikely if the, source-rock reservoirs are highly uniform in terms of their, properties. AAPG Bull. Assessment of undiscov-, ered oil and gas resources in conventional and continuous. We are indebted to, those organizations and individuals who provide us with various, Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, tribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give, appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a, link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were, Ayers WB Jr. Coalbed gas systems, resources, and production and a, review of contrasting cases from the San Juan and Powder River, Bian CS, Wang HJ, Wang ZC, Xu ZH. That would so roughly quadruple the pumping speed there. For example, source, rocks and reservoirs are commonly regarded as two distinct, stratigraphic units in the general practice of traditional PS, studies and exploration. Appropriate relative timing of formation of these elements and the processes of generation, migration and accumulation are necessary for hydrocarbons to accumulate and be preserved. contrast with conventional oil and gas accumulations, which have clear boundaries because of the presence of, complete edge/bottom water. Gas in low permeability reservoirs of the, Rocky Mountain Region. However, some accumulations in the, Shiqianfeng Formation may belong to conventional accu-, mulations or discontinuous accumulations due to the good, For the SPS, TPS, and CPS derived from a common, hydrocarbon source kitchen, the resulting accumulations in, source-rock, tight, and conventional reservoirs must be, inversely related to each other. need to be enhanced to maximize exploration efﬁciency. Connected with a proper conductance The higher the TOC, values, the higher the shale gas content (Ross and Bustin, should be thick enough so that the hydrocarbons generated, cannot be readily expelled. Petroleum System Approach to Project Evaluation: An Example Various categories have been proposed that describe a petroleum system. In fact, it is a tight, sandstone ﬁeld ruled by fault traps, with an area of only, and reservoirs of compartmentalized ﬂuvial sand, bodies in the Upper Cretaceous Lance Formation (Camp, faults on the south and west sides, forming a wedge block, that rises toward the southwestern corner, with the fault, argued that gas production rate at the high structural, position is better than that at the low structural posi. Moreover, hydrocarbons can even be quite, abundant at low structural positions, differing from most, The hydrocarbon-generating condition is a primary, factor affecting hydrocarbon enrichment. Geochemical characterization of gases from. Hydrocarbon accumulation patterns of, large tight oil and gas ﬁelds. The assessment of the natural temporal variability of source rock units is critical for the understanding of petroleum systems as changes in mineral matrix, organic matter (OM) concentration, and composition can significantly affect expulsion efficiency, primary and secondary migration processes, hydrocarbon quality as well as oil source rock correlation. Earth-Sci Rev. The permeability at the isotonic point reduces with the decrease of sample permeability. The integration of elastic impedance, shear impedance, and porosity improved the reservoir characterization. research and methods, 1990. Beijing: Science Press; 2012. p. 1–312, Yurewicz DA, Bohacs KM, Kendall J, et al. On the plane view, the stacking of multiple intervals of, oil/gas reservoirs makes the accumulation appear to be, voirs is laterally discontinuous on a proﬁle view due to the, discontinuity of the reservoirs. Thus, it would be improbable for a regional, Cross section of a quasi-continuous oil accumulation in the, ). In order to discuss the adsorption characteristics of Chang 7 organic-rich shales, we analyzed the test results of isothermal adsorption, the content of organic carbon, XRD, thermal maturity and liquid nitrogen adsorption of 16 shale samples chosen from the study area. tural. Yang KM, Pang XQ. The Chang-6, reservoirs are predominated by tight sandstones in the Ordos Basin, dominated in tight reservoirs that are adjacent to source, rocks. Fundamentals of gas shale. The shale rock system mainly developed interbedded formation of felsic shale, calcareous and dolomitic shale and carbonates; high quality hydrocarbon source rock formed in the stable and closed environment is the material base for shale oil enrichment; intergranular pores in analcite, intercrystalline pores in dolomite and interlayer micro-fractures make tight carbonate, calcareous and dolomitic shale and felsic shale effective reservoirs, with brittle mineral content of more than 70%; high abundance laminated shale rock in the lower section of Ek2¹ is rich in shale oil, with a total thickness of 70 m, burial depth between 2 800 to 4 200 m, an average oil saturation of 50%, a sweet spot area of 260 km² and predicted resources of over 5×10⁸ t. Therefore, this area is a key replacement domain for oil exploration in the Kongdian Formation of the Cangdong sag. In general, struct, sweet-spot accumulations are characterized by higher, resource abundance and producibility and relatively smal-, ler areas of oil/gas distribution than non-structural sweet-, spot accumulations. The eventual result of its evolution would be, the disappearance of such an imbalance and the establish-, ment of a normal distribution of oil/gas and water (Zhao, oil/gas–water inversion to be formed and sustained over a, long geological time frame. Similar to continuous accumulations, quasi-continuous, accumulations are also characterized by extensive distri-, bution and large volumes of reserves. It has been suggested that the clay, mineralogy of practically all of the shale reservoirs older, than Upper Cretaceous is dominated by illitic clays, both in, discrete form and as illite-dominated, mixed-layer, illite–, In reality, the content of clay minerals versus non-clay, minerals or brittle minerals in shale and the origins of the, minerals including quartz are essentially determined by, depositional settings and diagenesis. However, the increasing discovery of and the in-depth, research into unconventional oil and gas accumulations in, recent years has indicated that the traditional PS theories, School of Earth Sciences and Engineering, Xi’an Shiyou, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Petroleum Accumulation. quasi-continuous, and discontinuous accumulations, respectively. Review of emerging resources: U.S. shale gas and shale oil, Er C, Zhao JZ, Bai YB, et al. I. This ﬁeld’s major, pay zone of the Lower Cretaceous Bashijiqike Formation, porosities ranging from 5.7% to 7.9% (averaging 7.0%), and permeabilities in the range of 0.06–0.29 md (averaging, the Dina 2 Gas Field is also a typical anticlinal trap, with a, . Another example is the Upper Paleozoic natural gas. generally controlled by multiple factors. Only a brief discussion is needed here regarding the distribution of these elements among the thousands of model termed quasi-continuous accumulation and demon-, strated that tight oil and gas are dominated by quasi-con-, tinuous accumulation, while discontinuous (conventional, trap-controlled) accumulations are of subordinate impor-, continuous (basin-centered) accumulations actually do not, exist in non-source-rock tight reservoirs such as tight, sandstones. characteristics of a successful shale gas play. For instance, almost all, the Upper Paleozoic tight sandstone gas ﬁelds and Triassic, tight sandstone oil ﬁelds in the Ordos Basin, and some, Triassic Xujiahe Formation tight sandstone gas ﬁelds, such, as the Anyue Field in the central Sichuan Basin, are formed, in typical stratigraphic traps. After accumulation, the for-, merly formed oil/gas accumulations with edge water or, bottom water would be left nearby where they occurred. Deep Basin, Alberta, Canada. the conventional trap-controlled accumulation model. The hydrocarbon resource, potential of the TPS is likely to be greater than that of the, CPS; otherwise, the CPS would be of greater potential for, hydrocarbon resources. Hanson WB, Vega V, Cox D. Structural geology, seismic imaging. 2014;74:76–84. Sun HQ. 2013;34:573–83, Zhao JZ, Wang R, Er C. Adsorption characteristics of Chang 7 shales. A breakthrough of continental shale oil exploration in a lacustrine basin is expected to be achieved by volume fracturing in horizontal wells. U. S. Geological Survey, Schmoker JW. Geological characteristics of shale, rock system and shale oil breakthrough in a lacustrine basin: a, case study from the Paleogene 1st sub-member of Kong 2, Member in Cangdong sag, Bohai Bay Basin, China. Oil, Magoon LB. Instead, hydrocarbons in such reservoirs tend to form a widespread, and continuous distribution. The second is the, bottom sealing conditions, as more hydrocarbons would be. In reality, shown that clay mineral contents of the most successfully. The petroleum system concept is a reliable and logical way to judge and describe the petroleum potential and exploration risks of undrilled propects, plays, and basins. In: Magoon LB, Dow. Factors controlling proliﬁc. Cao Q, Zhao JZ, Fu JH, et al. The reason why quasi-, continuous accumulations occur primarily in gentle, depressions and slopes is that such settings favor the, deposition of large areas of source rocks and tight rese, voirs compared to those deposited in a steep and narrower, basin, and their gentle stratigraphic framework is disad-, vantageous for buoyancy-driven migration that could result, in local oil/gas concentrations. The presence of CO2 at temperatures between 300–550°C is also suggestive of an organic matter origin or solution seams of the Subis Limestone and this inference obviates migration from deep‐seated faults and any connectivity and/or openness of the petroleum system between the subsurface and the atmosphere. the sandstones had already become tight (Zhao et al. The micropore reservoirs are developed in shales interbedded with siltstones exhibiting high gamma ray (GR), high resistivity (Rt), low density (DEN), and slightly abnormal spontaneous potential (SP) in the well-logging curves. AAPG Bull. 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